|Stage||What to do||Self-efficacy||Decisional Balance|
|Precontemplation||raise awareness||High||Cons outweigh pros|
|Contemplation||work with the tension, let the person make the decision||Low||Pros and cons equal|
|Preparation||plan small steps, you need to build on success||Growing||Pros outweigh cons|
|Action||support and encouragement, prepare for relapse||High||Pros outweigh cons|
|Maintenance||support and encouragement||High||Pros outweigh cons|
|Relapse||revisit other stages||Low||Decisional Balance|
|Termination||party||High||Pros outweigh cons|
Velicer, W. F., C. C. DiClemente, et al. (1985). "Decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48(5): 1279-1289.
McConnaughy, E. A., J. O. Prochaska, et al. (1983). "Stages of change in psychotherapy: Measurement and sample profiles." Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice 20(3): 368-375.
Prochaska, J. O. and C. C. DiClemente (1983). "Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51(3): 390-395.
Prochaska, J. O. and et al. (1982). "Self-change processes, self-efficacy and self-concept in relapse and maintenance of cessation of smoking." Psychological Reports 51(3, Pt 1): 983-990.
Prochaska, J. O., W. F. Velicer, et al. (1994). "Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors." Health Psychology 13(1): 39-46.
Grant, A. M. (2006). An Integrative Goal-Focused Approach to Executive Coaching. Evidence based coaching handbook: Putting best practices to work for your clients. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons Inc; US: 153-192.
Grant, A. M. and J. Franklin (2007). "The transtheoretical model and study skills." Behaviour Change 24(2): 99-113.